couverture
titre Les schismes dans l'islam
auteur LAOUST Henri
date 1979
editeur Payot
pages 500
commentaires
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compte-rendu
retour
version imprimable
table des matieres


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AVANT PROPOS

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LISTE DES PRINCIPALES ABREVIATIONS

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Chapitre premier : LE CALIFAT DES COMPAGNONS ET LES SCHISMES (11-60/652-680)

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I. Les Quatre premiers califes 1

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II. Le califat de Mu'awiya 16

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Chapitre deuxième : LE DEVELOPPEMENT DES SCHISMES SOUS LES OMEYYADES APRES MU'AWIYA (60-132/680-750)

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I. Le chiisme 25

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II. Le khârijisme 36

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III. Les nouveaux partis d'opposition 48

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IV. La propagande et l'avènement des Abbassides 54

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Chapitre troisième : LA CONSOLIDATION DU CALIFAT ABBASSIDE ET LES DEBUTS DU SUNNISME (132-198/750-813)

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I. La lutte du califat pour l'unité 61

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II. Les débuts et les divisions du sunnisme 83

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Chapitre quatrième : LE CALIFAT MU'TAZILITE ET LA REACTION SUNNITE (198-247/813-861)

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I. La révolte d'Abu-l-Saraya et le réveil du zaidisme 93

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II. Bâbak et les khurramîya 95

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III. La politique chiite d'al-Ma'mun 98

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IV. L'inquisition mu'tazilite 101

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V. La réaction sunnite d'al-Mutawakkil 111

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VI. Ahmad b. Hanbal et le hanbalisme 114

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VII. Le soufisme 119

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Chapitre cinquième : LA CRISE DU CALIFAT

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I. Le sunnisme traditionaliste 123

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II. Le mu'tazilisme et l'acharisme 127

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III. Les progrès du zaidisme 131

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IV. L'ismaélisme : Qarmates et Fatimides 140

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V. L'imamisme, les Hamdanides et les Bouyides 146

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VI. Les variations de la politique califienne 151

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VII. La philosophie et le soufisme 156

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Chapitre sixième : LA PREPONDERANCE CHIITE ET LES DEBUTS DE LA RESTAURATION SUNNITE (334-455/945-1063)

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I. L'essor et la décadence des Bouyides 163

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II. Le sunnisme traditionaliste 174

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III. L'acharisme 177

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IV. Ibn Hazm et le zâhirisme 180

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V. L'imâmisme 181

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VI. L'ismaélisme 184

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VII. Le mu'tazilisme et la philosphie 185

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Chapitre septième : LA RESTAURATION SUNNITE (455-575/1063-1180)

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I. La fin des Fâtimides et la lutte contre l'ismaélisme 189

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II. L'essor de l'acharisme 200

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III. La résistance du hanbalisme 209

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IV. Le sunnisme nord-africain : Almoravides et Almohades 213

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Chapitre huitième : LE DERNIER SIIECLE DU CALIFAT(575-656/1180-1258)

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I. Les derniers califes 223

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II. Le sunnisme des Ayyoubides 227

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III. Le sunnisme nord-africain et la fin des Almohades 235

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IV. La Littérature doctrinale sur la fin du califat 240

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Chapitre neuvième : LE RENFORCEMENT ET LES DIVISIONS DU SUNNISME SOUS LES MAMLUKS (656-923/1258-1517) 251

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I. Les Mamlûks et les premiers Ottomans 251

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II. Le néo-hanbalisme 266

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III. La théologie dogmatique 276

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IV. Les confréries et le soufisme 282

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Chapitre dixième : LA RENAISSANCE DU CHIISME ET LE SUNNISME OTTOMAN (923-1160/1517-1747)

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I. Les Ottomans et les Safavides 289

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II. L'essor doctrinal et les divergences du chiisme 299

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III. La prépondérance du hanafisme 311

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IV. Le sunnisme en Afrique du Nord 317

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Chapitre onzième : LES FORMATIONS POSTERIEURES (Depuis 1160/1747)

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I. Le wahhabisme 321

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II. La crise ottomane et les tanzimât 332

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III. Afhânî, Abduh et le réformisme égyptien 339

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IV. La mahdîya 348

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V. La sanûsîya 353

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VI. Les mouvements réformistes dans l'Islam indien 356

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VII. Les mouvements dérivés du chiisme 363

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VIII. Le laïcisme et les résistances du réformisme 370

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Conclusion : DIVERGENCES ET CONVERGENCES

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l. Les voies de l'Islam 383

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II. L'idée de Dieu 387

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III. Le prophète et ses Compagnons 413

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IV. Le califat et le problème de l' Etat 430

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V. La foi et ses degrés 439

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VI. L'excommunication et ses limites 448