couverture
titre Saladin
auteur EDDE Anne-Marie
date 2008
editeur Flammarion
pages 764
commentaires
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compte-rendu
retour
version imprimable
illustrations


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Représentations de Saladin - Représentation occidentale de Jérusalem - Pièces de monnaie - Assassinat au Caire du vizi fatimide Shâwar - Bataille de Montgisard - Bataille de Hattin - Décapitation de Renaud de Châtillon - Différentes illustrations - Billets de banque syrien - Timbre jordanien (ILLUSTRATIONS)

Le tombeau de Saladin - La statue de Saladin (Damas) (PHOTOGRAPHIES)

tableaux


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Le Caire ayyoubide - Syrie du Nord et Haute-Mésopotamie - La Cyrénaïque et la Tripolitaine sous le règne de Saladin - La famille de Saladin - La Palestine au XIIe siècle - Site de la bataille de Hattin (4 juillet 1187) - Jérusalem à la veille de sa reconquête par Saladin - La campagne de Saladin en Syrie du Nord (1188) - L'empire de Saladin en 1190 - Damas à la fin du XIIe siècle (CARTES)

table des matieres


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Avertissment 8

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Introduction 9

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I. L'ASCENSION 23

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1. Le monde de Saladin

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Califes et sultan : un monde marqué par la violence, 23 - Musulmans et Francs dans la première moitié du XIIe siècle, 30

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2. Le temps de l'apprentissage 33

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La jeunesse de Saladin, 34 - Les expéditions égyptiennes, 38

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3. Vizir au Caire 47

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Un candidat de compromis, 47 - Les premières oppositions, 52 - La menace franque, 58

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4. La fin des Fatimides 62

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La mort du calife, 62 - La mainmise sur les palais, 66

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5. Lieutenant de Nûr al-Din en Egypte 72

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Nouvelles résistances égyptiennes, 72 - Conquête du Yémen, 76 - Tensions avec Nûr al-Din, 78

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II. LE SULTAN

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6. Usurpateur ou sultan légitime ? 85

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La difficile succession de Nûr al-Din, 86 - L'unificateur des musulmans, 96 - Souverain du Yémen et conquérant de l'Afrique du Nord, 105

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7. La caution du calife 112

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Les fondements de la légitimité, 113 - Des espoirs déçus, 117

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8. La conception du pouvoir 127

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Géopolitique ou "amour de la patrie", 128 - Prudence et concertation, 135

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9. Fonder une dynastie 142

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1168-1186 ; Une conception familiale du pouvoir, 144 - Le tournant de l'année 1186, 151 - Famille collatérale ou descendance directe ? 154

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10. L'appui des élites 158

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Le cercle des proches, 160 - Ralliements et retournements, 168

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11. L'élaboration d'une image 176

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Le saint homme et le souverain idéal, 177 - Saladin, Joseph et Salomon, 187 - Un sultant sans défaut ?, 192

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III. LE JIHAD

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12. Image et propagande 201

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L'unité de l'Islam, condition du jihad, 202 - La sultan, champion du jihad, 205 - L'importance de Jérusalem, 211 - Le martyre à tout prix ?, 216

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13. Les enjeux stratégiques 223

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La défense de l'Egypte, 223 - Dans le Sinaï et en mer Rouge, 229 - La Terre sainte, 234

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14. Les campagnes victorieuses 242

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La bataille de Hattin et ses conséquences, 242 - La prise de Jérusalem, 259 - Le siège de Tyr, 270 - La campagne en Syrie du Nord, 273

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15. La troisième croisade 282

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Les efforts diplomatiques de Saladin, 283 - Le début du siège d'Acre, 291 - L'appel de Saladin au calife almohade, 297 - Enlisement et dénouement, 202 - La fin de la croisade, 310

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16. Les règles de la guerre 321

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La nécessité de négocier, 321 - Les affrontements, 329 - Le sort des prisonniers, 347

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17. Le regard de l'autre 368

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Des objectifs mieux compris ?, 370 - Désigner l'ennemi, 375 - Des sentiments partagés, 377

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IV. DANS LA VIE DE TOUS LES JOURS

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18. Entre image et réalité 391

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Prières et dévotions, 392 - Guerre et chasse, 400 - Au milieu de ses proches, 402 - Voyages et résidences, 410

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19. Saladin et la souffrance 416

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La maladie et le deuil, 416 - La mort de Saladin, 423

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V: LE GOUVERNEMENT

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20. Le gardien de la foi 429

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Saladin, redresseur de torts, 430 - Défenseur du califat abbaside et des lieux saints, 432 - En faveur du sunnisme, 435 - Fondations religieuses et juridiques, 438 - Saladin et le soufisme, 440 - Contre les hérétiques, 452

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21. Chrétiens et juifs 463

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Les non-musulmans à l'avènement de Saladin, 463 - Entre répression et coexistence, 466 - Les répercussions des croisades, 471 - Leur rôle dans l'entourage de Saladin, 480

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22. L'Etat, le prince et les sujets 486

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Les réformes de Saladin, 387 - Un budget difficile à équilibrer, 496, Les armées et la flotte, 498 - Le rôle des bédouins arabes, 508 - Saladin et les pauvres, 513

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23. Commerce et marchés 519

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Les traités avec les villes italiennes, 520 - La route de la mer Rouge, 527, les échanges entre l'Egypte et la Syrie, 530 - Le contrôle du sultan sur les marchés, 532

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IV. LA LEGENDE 541

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24. Naissance et devenir 541

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25. Anti-héros ou prophète annoncé ? 546

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26. Le chevalier preux et généreux 554

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27. Entre Moïse, Jésus et Mahomet 563

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28. Le mythe du héros arabe 570

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Conclusion 583

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Notes 591

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Chronologie 699

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L'historiographie de Saladin 707

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Bibliographie 717

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Index 733

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Table des documents 757