couverture
titre Le chiisme
auteur HALM Heinz
date 1995
editeur PUF
pages 276
commentaires
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compte-rendu
retour
version imprimable
table des matieres


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Introduction 1

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Chapitre 1 - Les débuts du chiisme

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1 - Nom et définition 3

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2 - Sources, littérature et ouvrages de référence 5

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3 - La communauté islamique après la mort du Prophète 7

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4 - Le califat de Ali (656-661) 11

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5 - La renonciation d'al-Hasan (661) 18

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6 - Le martyre d'al-Husayn à Karbala 19

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7 - Le chiisme des quatre imams ou kaysanisme et l'origine de l'attente du Mahdi chez les chiites 21

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8 - Le soulèvement de Zayd ibn Ali et les débuts du zaydisme 26

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9 - Le hachichisme et le soulèvement de Abd Allah ibn Mu'awiya (744) 28

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10 - La révolution abbasside (747-749) 30

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Chapitre II - L'imamisme ou chiisme duodécimain, jusqu'au XVe siècle

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1 - Le Sixième Imam Ja'far al-Sâdiq (702-765) et les débuts de l'imamisme 35

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2 - Le Septième Imam Mûsâa al-Kâzim (745-799) et les waqifites 38

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3 - Les imams sous le contrôle des Abbassides 40

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4 - La "petite occultation" du Douzième Imam et l'ère des quatre "représentants" (874-941) 41

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5 - "La grande occultation" (941) et le retour attendu du Mahdi-Qa'im 45

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6 - Les débuts de la littérature imamite et la consolidation de la théorie "duodécimaine" 47

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7 - Le chiisme sous la protection des Bouyides (945-1055) 54

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8 - L'école de Bagdad : le kalam et les fondements du droit 59

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8 - Le sultanat des Seljoukides (1040-1194( et la réaction sunnite 68

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10 - Le chiisme sous la domination des Mongols 73

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11 - L'école de Hilla et les bases du droit chiite : ijtihâd et taqlid 77

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12 - Le chiisme et les ordres de derviches au XIVe siècle 82

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13 - Les mouvements extrémistes chiites "mahdistes" du XVe siècle 89

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Chapitre III - L'imamisme ou chiisme duodécimain du XVIe siècle à nos jours

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1 - L'ère des Safavides : le chah représentant de l'imam caché 97

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2 - Révélation, métaphysique et gnose : l'école théosophique d'Isfahan (XVIIe siècle) 105

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3 - Le mujtahid infaillible, une conception du XVIIe siècle 108

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4 - La victoire de l'école usûli au XVIIIe siècle 111

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5 - L'orthodoxie chiite sous les Kadjars au XIXe siècle 119

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6 - Le clergé adversaire du pouvoir temporel : régie du tabac et conflit constitutionnel 127

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7 - Le clergé chiite et la dynastie des Pahlavis (1925-1979) 133

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8 - Révolution islamique et république islamique en Iran 142

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9 - Le chiisme au Liban 149

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10 - Le chiisme duodécimain dans les Etats du Golfe 152

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11 - Les descendants des Qizilbash : les Turcs chiites en Turquie, Asie centrale et Afghanistan 153

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12 - Le chiisme duodécimain dans le sous-continent indien 155

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13 - Particularités culturelles et juridiques du chiisme duodécimain 156

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14 - Les "soupirs de l'affligé" : culte funéraire, processions de flagellants et représentations de la passion 158

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Chapitre IV - Le chiisme extrémiste

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1 - Les ghulât de Koufa 165

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2 - Les sectes extrémistes actuelles : ahl-e haqq et Alaouites / noseiris 168

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Chapitre V - L'ismaélisme ou chiisme septimain

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1 - Dénominations internes et externes 171

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2 - Le problème de l'origine des imams ismaéliens 172

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3 - Les débuts de la propagande ismaélienne 175

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4 - Le schisme de 899 : Fatimides et Qarmates 180

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5 - L'imamat des Fatimides (899-1171) 182

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6 - L'école iranienne : la récetpion du néo-platonisme 188

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7 - Les Druzes 191

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8 - Les nizaris : Assassins et Khojas 195

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9 - Tayyibites - musta'liens et bohoras 203

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Chapitre VI - Le zaydisme

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Notes 219

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Bibliographie 239

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Index 265